RETRACTED ARTICLE: The biochemistry of male homosexuality

Ioanna Kotsi, Chrisanthy Vlachaki, George Dimosthenis Tsitsas


Homosexuality is a common occurrence in humans and other species. It is a complex, universal phenomenon whose genetic and evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Despite great progress in the sciences, our understanding of the determinants of sexual orientation and, more specifically, of male homosexuality, is incomplete. In this paper, we have reviewed the biological causes of male homosexuality, which may provide clues for further research in this field, as provable biological or genetic differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals that weren't caused by their behaviour haven’t been found.

This article has been retracted due to plagiarism. An erratum will be published in Volume 3, Issue 1 (2014).


male homosexuality, fraternal birth order, maternal immune hypothesis, heterosexuality, homosexuality


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